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December 26th, 2012

04:37 pm - Sindarin Lesson 8

Lesson Eight.

Mixed Mutation.

Mixed mutation is caused by relatively few words. Usually, the word causing it does not change. The only one that does is en, which is genitive (which the Online Plain Text English Dictionary defines as "Of or pertaining to that case (as the second case of Latin and Greek nouns) which expresses source or possession. It corresponds to the possessive case in English.") Basically, en is used to represent "of the" in phrases such as "men of the city". As en changes, we will show the form it takes in the list, just remember that the other words causing mixed mutation do not change.
The other words causing it are: ben (according to the, like the), erin (on the, above the), nan (to the), uin (from the, of the) and 'nin (to the, for the).

The changes caused by mixed mutation are as follows:

B remains B eg e-bereth (of the queen)
BL becomes ML eg e-mlabed (of the flapping)
BR becomes MR eg e-mrannon (of the lord)
C becomes G eg e-gabor (of the frog)
CL becomes GL eg e-glaur (of the glory)
CR becomes GR eg e-graban (of the crow)
D remains D eg e-dant (of the fall)
DR remains DR eg en-dram (of the heavy stroke/the blow)
F remains F eg e-falch (of the ravine)
G remains G eg e-galenas (of the pipeweed)
GL remains GL eg en-glass (of the joy)
GR remains GR eg en-grond (of the club)
GW remains GW eg en-gwend (of the friendship)
H remains H eg e-habad (of the shore)
HW becomes 'W eg e-'west (of the breeze)
L remains L eg e-lang (of the cutlass)
LH becomes 'L eg e-'ling (of the web)
M remains M eg e-maethor (of the warrior)
N remains N eg en-nell (of the bell)
P becomes B eg e-barf (of the book)
PR becomes MR eg e-mrestanneth (of the affection of vowels)
R remains R eg edh-roch (of the horse)
RH becomes 'R eg e-'ravan (of the wild man)
S becomes H eg e-halab (of the herb)
T becomes D eg e-daur (of the forest)
TH remains TH eg e-thalion (of the champion)
TR becomes DR eg en-drenarn (of the tale)

The special words change as follows.

B becomes MB eg e-mbar (of the house)
D becomes ND eg e-ndîr (of the man)
G remains G eg en-gûl (of the sorcery)

As always, words beginning with vowels stay the same. eg Cabed-en-Aras (leap of the deer).

Come to the city Tolo nan garas
What news do you bring to the city? Man hiniath tegich nan garas? (Note, siniath (news) is mutated because it is the direct object)
I come from the field Telin uin barth
Come to the garden of the lady Tolo nan hant-e-hiril

Note that, although the hyphens are not essential, they do make it clear that the phrase is genitive.

When a genitival clause involves a plural word, in is used in place of en. For example elei-in-edhil (dreams of the elves).

Where the genitival clause is "of" or "of a" rather than "of the", the words are combined without en, and thus without the mutation.

field of enemies parth cyth
death of a friend gurth mellon
lord of Imladris aran Imladris


en of the (plural version in)
ben according to the, like the
erin on the, above the
nan to the
uin from the, of the
'nin to the, for the
caras .city (built above ground, shown in mutated form garas, above)
siniath news (shown in mutated form hiniath, above)
parth field, enclosed grassland.(shown in mutated form barth, above)
coth enemy
gurth death

Exercise 8.1.

Translate the following to English.

1. Mas dortha Aran Moria?
2. Cenin i 'lawar erin eryd.
3. Nuin menel, in edhil linnar.
4. Tôl i hiniath uin garas.
5. Garo 'lass-e-hant.

Exercise 8.2.

Translate the following into Sindarin.

1. I live on the mountain.
2. I am going to the city.
3. Do you see the flowers of the elves?
4. Where dwell the friends of the elves?
5. According to the book, the lady dwells in Lothlórien.

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04:32 pm - Sindarin Lesson 7

Lesson Seven.

Comparisons, Comparatives and Superlatives.

One very useful word is sui as, like.

Beautiful as a rose Bain sui meril.
Lonely as a wise dwarf Ereb sui naug hael.
Generous as a king Fael sui aran
Fierce as a Hobbit without meat Brêg sui perian pen aes
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March 15th, 2007

07:50 am - Sindarin Lesson 6.

Lesson Six.

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March 11th, 2007

02:43 pm

Lesson Five.

Sindarin Plurals.

Instead of adding s to words to make them plural,Sindarin changes the vowels within the word. The final syllable of the word changes differently from all other syllables. The changes are as follows:

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02:15 pm - Sindarin Lesson 4.

Lesson Four.

Present Tense of Sindarin Verbs.

For the present tense, grab the stem of the verb (ie, the bit ending in -) hold it tightly, so it can't wriggle free (tricksy verbs!) and then put a tail on it. Or, if you want to be boring, first person singular, third person plural etc have different endings, so that the form of the verb shows who or what is doing the action. The endings are as follows:

I -n
you (fam) -g
you (formal) -ch
he/she In a-stem verbs, no change to stem. For i-stem verbs, see below.
we -m
you (pl) -ch
they -r
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01:28 pm - Sindarin Lesson 3.

Lesson Three.

Sindarin Verbs.

You already know that the direct object of a verb undergoes soft mutation. You have also seen that verbs change according to tense and person (in other words, they are conjugated). For example, the first person present tense of cen- is cenin (I see), whereas the third person, past tense is cên. There are verbs whose stem ends in a (known as a-stem verbs for that very reason) and all the rest are known as i-stem verbs. They conjugate differently.
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01:22 pm - Sindarin Lesson 2.

Lesson Two.

Soft Mutation.

The consonant mutations are the hardest part of Sindarin and the one most likely to scare people off. However, they are really far easier than they appear. The most frequent one is soft mutation. like all the mutations, it is designed to make words flow together more melodiously. Read more...Collapse )

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01:18 pm - Sindarin Lesson 1.

Lesson One.


Sindarin was inspired by Welsh. It is an inflected language, meaning that verbs take different forms according to who is doing the action. It also has consonant mutation, which means that the first letter(s) of a word sometimes change. When you learn where and how they change, you will find that far easier than it sounds.
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